In India, there are three main
types of farmers engaged in organic agricultural
1. Farmers who mostly follow the indigenous
knowledge and technology developed over the past thousands of years.
They normally grow for their own consumption and have little
2. Farmers with small to medium sized holdings.
These can be divided into two groups: those working to revive the
Vedic practices, coupled with Ayurvedic tradition of health system
with scientific exposition; and others who follow modern organic
agriculture systems, like Steiner's biodynamic agriculture or
Fukuoka's "nature farming", for example. They usually have market
surplus and sometimes export their goods.
companies that have responded to market demands in the North by
organizing large scale conversions to organic systems. By going
organic they add more economic value to the crops, which are already
cultivated in a manner similar to organic systems. They are actively
engaged in promoting organic agriculture for export.
produces primary organic products and processed foods are limited.
Organic products grown in various agroclimatic zones are coffee,
teas, spices, fruits, vegetables and cereals as well as honey and
cotton. Organic animal husbandry, poultry and fisheries do not
exist. Domestic organic markets and consumer awareness are
underdeveloped in India, but interest is growing. On the domestic
market, organic food is usually sold directly from the farmer or
through specialized shops and restaurants. At present, a price
premium of about 20-30% over conventional products can be received
India is an exporting country and does not
import any organic products. The main market for exported products
is the European Union. Recently India has applied to be included on
the "EU-Third-Country-List". Another growing market is the USA.
External certification bodies introduced inspection and
certification programmes in 1987. In June 2001, the Government of
India announced the National Programme for Organic Production
(NPOP), which aims to promote sustainable production, environmental
conservation, reduction in the use and import of agrochemicals, the
promotion of export and rural development (FAO